Hoppin' Popp Rabbitry


Taken in part from the ARBA's Official Guidebook to Raising Better Rabbits & Cavies.



Agouti: A hair shaft that has three or more bands of color, with a definite break between each color. Usually dark slate at the base, with two or more alternating light or dark bands or rings of color, which is further interfused with contrasting dark guard hair. The head, feet and ears usually have ticking; the belly color is much lighter (may be white in some cases) and does not carry ticking.
Albino: A pink-eyed, white-furred/wooled rabbit.
ARBA: The initials of the American Rabbit Breeders Association, Inc., which promotes rabbits in the United States and foreign countries, provides for licensing of judges and registrars, and publishes a book of standards (The Standard of Perfection) which describes the desired characteristics for each recognized breed.
Arch (or Arc): A gentle curvature of the spine, which extends from the neck (or shoulders in some breeds) to the rear of the rabbit. It is best observed by viewing the animal in profile.

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Balance: 1) Type - Shape or conformation. An orderly and pleasing arrangement of physical characteristics so as to present a harmonious appearance. 2) Markings - Equal distribution of corresponding markings, such as color division of the Harlequin, equal amounts of color on the cheeks of the Dutch. Equal distribution of color in the pattern and side markings of the Checkered Giant, English Spot, and Rhinelander.
Banding: 1) A hair shaft having various colors. Normally associated with an agouti coat. 2) An unbroken vertical circle of marking color, extending around the body of the Harlequin.
Bare Spot: A portion of the rabbit's pelt that lacks fur due to molt or any other cause. A disqualification in Dutch.
Base Color: The color of the fur next to the skin.
Base Color: The color on the underside of the rabbit, extending from the forelegs to the crotch area.
Blaze: The white markings found on the head of the Dutch rabbit. It covers the nose, whisker bed, and runs along the jawline. The shape is that of a wedge, which tapers from the nose are to the base of the ears.
Bloom: The vitality and finish of a coat in good condition.
Blemish: Any defect or fault which detracts from the appearance.
Boil or Abcess: A localized area of inflammation caused by an infection under the skin, in a gland, or in a hair shaft. It produces a localized swelling, heat, and redness. A disqualification from competition.
Bowed Legs: May be applied to the fore or hind legs. Bent like a bow. Legs curved outwardly or inwardly from the middle. A disqualification from competition.
Breed: A class of domestic rabbit which reproduces itself with distinctive characteristics such as fur, markings, shape, and size. A breed may be divided into varieties which are generally identified by color. A further subdivision of the breeds may include several varieties in groups as in Netherland Dwarfs and Harlequins.
Breeder: 1) Anyone who raises a special variety or varieties of rabbits or cavies which comply with their accepted Standard of Perfection. 2) A rabbit used primarily to produce offspring.
Breeding Certificate:A written certificate issued by the owner of a stud buck, showing its pedigree in full, and the date of the breeding to a particular doe. It is issued as proof of the ancestry of the anticipated litter.
Brindling: 1) The longer tipped guard hairs carried up the sides of Tans. 2) An interesting mixture of two colors without a definite pattern.
Broken Coat: A coat with guard hairs missing or broken in spots, which exposes the undercoat. Areas where the coat is affected by molt which exposes the undercoat.
Broken Color: Any recognized rabbit breed color in conjunction with white, and carrying the breed pattern.
Broken Ear: A distinct break in the cartilage of the ear which prevents erect ear carriage. A disqualification from competition.
Broken Tail: A tail that is, or has been broken and is out of line. A disqualification from competition.
Buck: An unaltered or intact male rabbit.
Buck Teeth: See Wolf Teeth. A disqualification from competition.
Bull Dog: A short, broad, bold head with a definite masculine appearance.
Butterfly: A nose marking found on many breeds and broken varieties. The wing portions cover the whisker bed and upper lip, with the body or nose fork extending up the center of the face.
Butting Teeth: A form of malocclusion where the incisors meet together evenly instead of the upper incisors overlapping the lower incisors (also called "pegged" teeth). A disqualification from competition.

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Caked Teats or Udders: Engorgement of a doe's mammary glands and teats with an abundant milk supply (inflammation usually indicates mastitis).
Cannibalism: The practice of a doe eating her own young.
Carriage: 1) The manner in which a rabbit carries itself. The style or characteristic pose of a rabbit. 2) The style in which a rabbit carries its ears.
Charlie: An extremely lightly marked animal in marked breeds or broken groups. Usually having colored ears, light eye circles and a Charlie Chaplain mustache-like marking for a butterfly and are also usually devoid of back and side markings. The trait is usually genetically recessive.
Cheeks: 1) The sides of the face below the eyes. 2) The rounded color head markings that form the blaze and carry down along the jaw line of the Dutch.
Chopped: A condition of the body type in which there is an abrupt and sharp vertical fall of the top of the hip to the tail. Not well filled out and rounded.
Classification: A system of arranging the judging within different breeds.
Clean: 1) A term used on French Angora, Satin Angora, Jersey Wooly, and American Fuzzy Lop's head, ears, feet and legs denoting the presence of normal fur (absence of wool) in these places. 2) A markings term denoting well formed markings without congestion or drags.
Cobby: A short and stocky body type which is close coupled and very compact.
Cold: An infection localized in the nose. Usually characterized by repeated sneezing and discharge of fluid from the nose. Sometimes accompanied by matted fur on the inside of the front feet. A disqualification from competition. (Note: In judging, the matted fur is only and indication and shall not be considered as conclusive evidence of a cold).
Compatible: In eye color, normal color that complements or matches the body color.
Condition:The overall physical state of a rabbit in relation to its health, cleanliness, fur and grooming.
Conjunctivitis: Inflammation of the inner membrane of the eyelid and sometimes the portion of the membrane that covers the white of the eye. A disqualification from competition.
Coprophagy (Cecotrophy): The normal practice of the rabbit consuming some of the droppings (soft night feces) directly from the anus.
Cow Hocks: Hind legs that turn inward at the hock causing the foot portion to turn outward from the body. A disqualification from competition.
Crossbreeding: Mating individuals of different breeds, thus making a nonshowable rabbit.
Crown: A strong basal ridge of cartilage at the top of the head between the ear base on some lop-eared breeds.
Culling: Removal of undesirable rabbits from the herd, not neccisarily by killing them.

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Dam: The mother of a rabbit.
Dead Hairs: Fur which lacks life. Caused by molting or an unfinished coat.
Dead Tail: A tail which is hard and brittle due ot the loss of circulation. Not a disqualification unless broken and out of alignment.
Density: The property or quality of a thick coat of fur. The number of fur fibers in a given area.
Definition: 1) The sharpness and clarity of a color break on a hair shaft, as the ring color in agouti fur. 2) Sometimes used to describe color contrasts.
Depth: 1) Measurement downward from the top line of the body to the lowest portion of the body. 2) Sometimes used to describe the extension of color down the hair shaft.
Deviated Sternum: A condition in which the connecting tissue of the ribs and/or breastbone fuse together forming an irregular sternum. Typically found at the lower end of the rib cage and characterized as a lump or cone shaped bony protrusion, which may also extend up into the internal cavity of the animal. A disqualification from competition.
Dew Claw: An extra toe or functionless digit on the inside of the front leg.
Dewlap: A pendulous fold of loose skin which hangs from the throat. Common in does. Should bein proportion to the toal body size. Not accepted in some breeds.
Disqualification from Competition: One or more defects, deformities, or blemishes which renders a rabbit ineligible for competition or registration.
Doe: An unaltered or intact female rabbit.
Drags: Intrusions of color markings into a white marking area or vice versa.

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Ear Canker: An inflamed scabby condition deep inside the ear. It is caused by an infestation of the ear canal by rabbit ear mites. A disqualification from competition.
Ear Lacing: A colored line of fur which outlines the sides and tips of the ears.
Extension: 1) Length of leg and limb. 2) Depth of color carried down a hair shaft.
Eye Circle: Marking of color around the eye. As in the Checkered Giant, English Spot, Rhinelander, and broken varieties in breeds.
Eye color: The color of the iris - the circle of color which surrounds the pupil of the eye.

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Faking: Any dying, plucking, trimming or clipping so as to alter appearance. Includes coloring toenails, powdering and indiscriminate use of grooming preperations designed to alter the natural condition or appearance. A disqualification from competition.
Faults: Imperfections for a particular breed or variety. Not serious enough to disqualify the rabbit.
Fine Coat: A coat of fur too fine in texture, lacking body. Guard hairs are weak and thin in structure. Lacking the proper amount of guard hairs.
Finish: The desired degree of perfection in condition. Fully prime coat, color and flesh.
Flabby: The condition of a rabbit when the skin hangs loosely by its own weight. Not trim, shapely or firm in flesh.
Flank: The side of the rabbit above the belly between the ribs and hips.
Flat Coat: Fur lying too closely to the body. Lacks spring or body as noted by touch. Usually a fine coat accompanied with lack of density.
Flat Shoulders: A trait that occurs when the top line over the shoulders is noticeably parallel to the surface of the judging table. A lack of continuous arch from the neck over the shoulders.
Fly Back: A coat of fur which flies back to its smooth normal position when stroked from the hindquarters to the shoulders.
Foreign Color: Any color of fur, nails, or eyes differing from that called for in the ARBA Standard of Perfection for the breed or variety.
Forequarters: The portion of the body starting with the neck, back to and including the last rib.
Fostering: The use of a doe other than the dam to nurse and raise young kits.
Fryer: A young meat animal, which for show purposes, cannot be over 10 weeks of age or weigh over 5 pounds.
Furnishings: The tassels and fringes on the ers, the bangs and head side trimming on some wooled breeds.

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Genotype: The genetic, inbred characteristics and potential of a rabbit.
Gestation: The length of time between conception and kindling/birth. (Normally 31 days.) The carrying of young.
Glossy: The reflection, luster or brightness of naturally healthy fur. A natural property of fur, sometimes improved by grooming.
Group: A broader classification than variety, usually applied to color groupings.
Guard Hair: The longer, coarser, projecting hair of the rabbit's coat which offers protection to the undercoat and furnishes wearing quality to the coat in addition to providing sheen.

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Hair Ball: An accumulation of hair in the stomach, which forms a ball and impairs appetite and indigestion.
Hindquarters: The rear portion or section of the body; composed of the loin, hind legs and rump. The portion of the body posterior to the last rib.
Hock: The joint in rabbits that corresponds to the ankle in humans.
Hog Fat: A rabbit that is obviously over-fattened and, consequently, out of proportion for the true type of breed.
Humpback: A hump or protrusion on the back which mars the appearance of the rabbit.
Hutch Stain: Stain on the coat as a result of urine, manure, or rust from the hutch.

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Inbreeding: A breeding system involving very close mating of rabbit stock such as brother and sister, or parent and offspring.
Intermediate: A rabbit at least 6 months of age and under 8 months of age or meeting the weight requirements of the breed. (See ARBA class descriptions of each breed).

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Junior: A rabbit less than 6 months of age.

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Kindle or Kindling: The process of giving birth to young rabbits.
Kitling (Kit): A young or newly born rabbit.
Knock-Kneed: Bones on the front legs that turn inward from the middle.

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Lactate: To nurse, to produce milk.
Lap Spots: Intensification of belly color in the area of the groin (inside the hind legs). Normally associated with shaded selfs, agoutis, and wide band agoutis.
Light Toenail: Toenail showing some pigmentation but not full color called for in the Standard.
Line breeding: A system of mating stock so that offspring are close descendents.
Litter: The group of kits born to a doe when she kindles.
Loin: The portion of the back on each side of the spine from the last rib to the hip joint.
Loose Coat: See Open Coat.
Lopped Ears:Pendulous ears which are not carried upright and fall to the front or sides.
Luster: Brightness and brilliance of fur.

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Malocclusion: An improper meeting of the incisors which results in abnormal wear and overgrowth of the teeth. This may be inherited or be caused by physical injury.
Mandolin: Having the appearance of a mandolin laid face down. The back and saddle arch toward the loins to make noticeably broader hindquarters. The formation starts behind the shoulders.
Marbling: A mottling of the eye color.
Marked: A rabbit, usually white, which is broken up by an orderly placement of another color; also rabbits which carry the Tan pattern.
Massive: Large, bulky, heavy, and ponderous. Usually used to refer to head shape.
Midsection: The portion of the body starting with the 6th rib back to the rear legs on the sides. Including the portion of the loin from the last rib to the high point of the body.
Molt: The act or process of shedding or changing the fur. The baby fur is shed at two months, and the first prime coat is developed at four to six months.
Moon Eye: See Wall Eye.
Mutation: The sudden appearance of a new type because of a change or alteration of the organization of a gene. The best known mutations are the Rex and the Satin fur types.
Muzzle: The lower part of the face and nose of the rabbit.

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Nestbox: A special box in which the doe kindles and rears the kits for the first few weeks.
Nick: A mating which produces offspring superior to either parent.
Nostrils: The two openings of the nose leading to the internal structures of the head.

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Off-Colored: Several hairs or patches of fur foreign to the color standard of the rabbit. Also, a departure from the desired color of fur, eyes or toenails (See Foreign Colored).
Off White: Slight grayish or creamy tint to a white coat.
Open Coat: Fur lacking density in the undercoat with fine guard hairs and poor texture. Also called a loose coat.
Outcrossing: Mating unrelated stock of the same breed.

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Palpation: Feeling the abdomen of the female rabbit to check whether it is pregnant.
Parturition: Kindling, the act of giving birth.
Parasite: An organism that lives on or within the host animal, and causes damage to the host. Examples include mange, lice, fleas, and worms.
Patch: A small section of fur.
Paunch: The prominent portion of the abdomen.
Pea Spots: Two spots of the marking color at the inside case of the ear in Tan pattern breeds (Tan Crown spots in Tan Standard)
Pedigree: A written chart of the male and female ancestors (the parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents) of a rabbit. It also shows the date of birth and may contain other information such as color or weight.
Pegged Teeth: See Butting.
Pelt: The hide after it is removed from the animal. The usable portion is that part remaining after the removal of the head, feet, tail, and legs.
Pencil Line: A protrusion of fur across the throat under the chin.
Pepper and Sale: A flat, unattractive appearance of black and white ticking, as found in Chinchillas. Caused by a lack of contrast and waviness in the ticking and weakness of color on the tips of the guard hairs.
Phenotype: The actual physical appearance of the rabbit.
Pigeon Breasted: A narrow chest with protruding breast bone.
Pinched Hindquarters: Tapering towards the tail at the lower hindwuarter, giving the rabbit a "pinched" appearance from the rear.
Plush: Dense, fine hair with a very soft feel.
a. Color - The colored ears, tail, nose, rear feet, and the forelegs of a rabbit suchas a Himilayan or Californian.
c. Show Record - Points that an animal recieves toward "Display" points to be figured by multiplying six points for first, four points for second, three points for third, two points for fourth, and one point for fifth times the number in the class.
Pointed: Breeds such as the Himilayan or Californian, which have dark tips on the feet, ears, nose and tail (the points).
Pot Belly: A distended condition of the stomach and intestines, usually found in young rabbits.
Poor Coat: Fur not in good condition, due to molting, rust, or ill health of the rabbit, or of general poor quality due to genetic factors.
Prime Coat: A mature, glossy coat free of loose fur or patches or ingrowing fur and usually characterized by a slight ridge down the center of the back.
Purebred: A very loose term used to designate rabbits which closely approximate the requirements of the Standard of Perfection of the breed.

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Rabbitry: A place where domestic rabbits are kept.
Racy: A slim, trim, alert and active looking rabbit which is slender in body and legs and harelike in appearance.
Registration: The official recording of a rabbit and its pedigree that has been approved by a liscensed registrar.
Ring Color: The color of the intermediate portion of a hair shaft; as in Agouti colored fur.
Roaster: An intermediate meat animal, which for show purposes, must be under 6 months of age and weigh 5-1/2 to 8 pounds.
Roll Back: A gradual return of the coat of fur to normal position when it is stroked from the hindquarters to the shoulders.
Roman Nose: A nose with the bridge so high it forms a convex line from the forehead to the nose tip.
Rump: The upper, rounded part of the hindquarters.
Rust: A reddish-brown coloration of the fur, usually appearing on the sides, flanks, or feet of rabbits. Rust appears in blue, black, chocolate, lilac and sable colored animals. It may be caused by exposure to sunlight, dirty hutches, or dead hair about to molt.

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a. Carcass - The upper back portion of a carcass, including both loins, rump and hind legs.
b. Markings - A marking on the Dutch rabbit where the white fur ends and the colored fur begins, on the upper part of the body.
Screw Tail: See Wry Tail.
Self or Self-Colored: Rabbits with the same color fur all over the body, head, legs and tail. Not having ticking, agouti pattern, shading, or tan pattern, etc. Examples - white, blue, black, chocolate, etc.
Senior: A rabbit six months of age or over in those breeds having four showroom age classes (Senior bucks, Senior does, Junior bucks, Junior does), or a rabbit eight months of age or over in breeds having six showroom age classes (Senior bucks, Senior does, 6-8 bucks, 6-8 does, Junior bucks, Junior does).
Shaded or Shaded-Self: A rabbit with a gradual transition of a basic color usually from dark to light. The dark color is usually found on the back, head, ears, tail, feet and area of the neck. It then shades down to lighter color on the sides.
Shadow Bars: Weakness of self color in the fur on both front and hind legs; appearing in the form of light colored bars running across the feet. Also occurs in the Agouti pattern.
Shape: General conformation; the rabbit's overall appearance as shown by body structure.
Sheen: The principal feature of the Satin mutation. A bright, natural luster which is a result of the unique structure of the hair shaft. The glassy transparent hair shell has the ability to reflect light. Sometimes used in error to describe condition of normal fur. "Glossy" is vetter suited to describe this condition in the normal fur.
Shoulder: The upper joint of the foreleg, connecting it to the body.
Show Classses: The divisions of rabbits by age and size in a show. Examples: Senior, 6-8, and Junior.
Silvered: Fur having the appearance of a silvery gloss of luster, caused by an abundance of silver-white or silver-tipped guard hairs evenly distributed through the fur so as to present an overall shiny or silvery appearance.
Sire: The father of a rabbit.
Slipping Coat: A coat of fur that is shedding or molting.
Slobbers: Excessive salivation creating wet or moist and unsightly fur around the mouth, lower jaws and forelegs.
Smut: A dark, sooty appearing surface color, usually formed by a large number of dark guard hairs. Found in many rabbits that carry the genetic factor for red. Pelt stain found in Himilayans and Californians. The nose marking found on Himilayans.
Snaky: Slender, narrow body, thin and typical of the Himilayan.
Snipe: A long, narrow head that gives the appearance of undue leanness.
Snuffles: A bacterial infection that causes sneezing and mucous discharge from the nose of rabbits.
Solid: A rabbit with the same basic coloration over the entire body, not mixed with any other color to create a pattern or markings. In a broad sense, it may include selfs and shaded selfs, Agouti and wide band Agouti, ticked as in steel, silver and D'Argent rabbits, but not those of the basic Tan pattern. Pointed whitesin Angoras and some Lop breeds are classified as solids according to the individual breed standards.
Sore Hock: Ulceration of the foot in rabbits. Can occur on both hind and front feet.
Sport: A rabbit not true to the characteristic color of its breed.
Spot: A distinct, noticeable cluster of foreign-colored hairs forming a definite spot, not just stray hairs close together.
Spraddled (Spraddle-Legged): A condition in which the legs spread out from the body from the hip (rear legs) or shoulder (front leg) joints.
Standard of Perfection: The book stating the characteristics for each recognized breed of rabbit as approved by the American Rabbit Breeders Association, Inc.
Stewer: A mature meat animal which, for show purposes, must be over 6 months of age and weigh over 8 pounds.
Stifle: See "Knee".
Strain: A group of rabbits within a breed which regulary reproduce uniform characteristics.

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Ticking: A distribution of longer guard hairs of a color distinct from the under wool or body fur which presents a wavy appearance. Ticking is characterized by longer, black and/or tipped guard hairs.
Tint: A slight coloring or dusting of a color on another color; a variation in the density of a color.
Top Color: The surface color of the fur lying in its normal position.
Triangle: The small triangle-shaped area behind the ears which is generally lighter in color than the rest of the coat. A feature of the Tan pattern.
Tucked Up: The trim appearance of a rabbit with the flank and belly gathered in closely to form an arch when the rabbit is in a sitting position.
Type: Denotes conformation of a rabbit, or shape or size of a particular part of a rabbit, e.g. head type. The general physical makeup of the rabbit as compared to the ideal.

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Undercolor: The color at the base of the hair shaft next to the skin. Not the belly color of the rabbit.
Undercut:The belly marking on a Dutch rabbit. A continuation of the saddle marking.
Undercut Hindquarters:A condition in which the skeletal and/or muscular structure does not fill the lower hindquarters.
Under Wool: A medium fine, soft, delicately waved undercoat on wool breeds.

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Variety: A division within a breed.
Vent Disease:A venereal disease in rabbits which affects both sexes. Indicated by scabby, reddened tissues around the sex organs.

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Wall Eye (Moon Eye): An eye which is qhitish on the surface (cornea); having a milky film over the eye.
Weaning: Separating the doe and the young so the young can no longer nurse.
White Toenail: A nail without pigmentation showing only the pink cast of the blood vessel (quick).
Wool: The soft, fleecy hair on Angora, American Fuzzy Lop, and Jersy Wooly breeds of rabbits. The guard hair and underfur resemble fine wool in texture.
Wool Block: A blockage of the intestine by wool or fur (see Hair Ball).
Wolf Teeth: Protruding or elongated incisors in either the upper or lower jaw caused by malocclusion which prevents normal wear (see Malocclusion).
Wry Tail: An abnormal tail, bent, carried, or twisted permanently to one side; a corkscrew tail with one or more turns.

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Yellow Fat: Body fat in a dressed rabbit that is yellow in color, which is undesirable from a sales standpoint. A genetically recessive trait.

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